Something to Think About

When you woke up this morning did you ever think, “Man, Dads going to die today, maybe I should tell him I love him?” Or maybe your best friend are fighting because your ex choose him over you. So he dies this afternoon in an accident at work. Do you think it was worth knowing you and him hadn’t talked in a couple days all because of her? Or how about her? How do you think she would feel knowing you two hadn’t spoken because of her?

Emotions are strong, very powerfully compelling things. But so often we let them control or ignore them completely.

We, most people, choose to set aside saying how we feel to keep from addressing how we feel. Not just because we want to avoid hurting others, or admitting to others how we feel, but the fact that many of us don’t want to admit how we feel because it is awkward or hard to accept maybe putting things aside and being happy for others is the best path.

Please think of all those who you love, all those who mattered in your past… Do you miss them? Do you wish you could tell them how you feel? If yes, then do it.

Yeah just maybe you would have told your friend goodbye because you really don’t like your ex.. But at least you would know you were honest with how you feel. Sometimes enough goodbye’s will allow someone to realize someone who is bad for them. Sometimes enough I love you’s can make someone who hurts feel better. Sometimes being a friend in the truest form, can change another person’s life.

No, this isn’t a forward. This is just one thing I wanted to give to you, my friends. If you choose to share, please do feel free. While you are at it, please tell them Naanad says they wish them well also.

Maybe a little positivity in this world will make up for all the negative things going on around us.

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The Philosophy of Others

Now I know Simone said that she was a student of Sartre’s philosophy, but I think she was in fact his mentor, and he was the student who only half listened to the teachings. Simone not only produced the initial work that Sartre then expanded on for his Being and Nothingness, but also he used many examples from her book to emphasize his perspective. Often times Sartre did no expanding his arguments beyond that particular example.

Her writings in Ethics of Ambiguity definitely highlight the depths of her differences from Sartre while carefully hiding her thoughts in obscure contrasts and word choices. In uses of the words tragic, joy, and nature she highlights things that would otherwise be passed over by others as typical adjectives and words in common sentences.

How do these words accentuate her concepts any differently than if another were to write the same words. Well, being that “nature” is part of the in-itself it really can not be a stand alone being so there for bringing it into the foreground to Sartre would be giving up your own freedom and be giving it to “nature.” Also joy is an emotion which Sartre seems to have a large problem with. Tragic implies fate, which for Sartre would be detrimental to his concepts in Being and Nothingness which depend on freedom from everything.

These concepts not only does she use in her text but she also is very passionate about her discussions on them. She argues that ethics and actions on the individual level are still conscious regardless of the aspect of God being in place or not.  She also discusses the paradoxical concept that once man considers himself free, he gives up the capability to wish.

Simone also discusses the concept of human spontaneity and the fact that despite it’s capability of being free, normally there is an intended direction that that being is striving for. That this intention to be free still hinders our freedom in the fact that any project we take up limits us on what projects we might have else taken up in its stead.

Sartre defines being as taking up projects and taking up projects to make yourself free despite any situation should in turn allow you to be free when that project is completed. But if this were the case, the next project taken up could define our being and again cause a lack of freedom.

Simone also argues disclosure is the path to finding freedom not simply defining what the obstacle is not. To list everything that something is not to determine its being just creates it, but does not give it the status of for-itself. You have to disclose it to the world to give it its being.

Sartre had a hard time arguing much of his concepts between the differences between the for-itself and the in-itself due to the conflict he perceived in having more than one for-itself in existence. He did not argue there was not the capability of being more than one, but he asserts that in order for two entities to be in one room, one must give way to being an in-itself for the for-itself to emerge.

This is also a topic that Simone discusses in Ethics of Ambiguity that expresses a conflict with Sartre’s book. She discusses fairly frankly in the fact that in order to become an in-itself the person who opts to do so, does willingly, and that it does not require shame to occur. This is a concept that Sartre depended on in his arguments to define the concept of for-itself and in-itself. To choose to give up your self at your own will, is a freedom and that in acting the right to do so is one of several things that not only did Sartre not discuss, but Simone seems to have a conflict with him not doing so.

Simone also touches on topics that Sartre does not that are very commonly seen themes in her book She Came to Stay. She points out the personalities and interactions with people and the 5 general stages of being and how they inter-relate. Subhuman, serious, nihilist, adventurer, and the passionate, express different aspects of being that Sartre vaguely touched upon.

Passionate is very closely related to the masochistic concept in the aspects of how they relate to each other, but Sartre leaves it as masochistic and sadistic as it’s opposite. He doesn’t discuss the concept that there is a concept of thought that can lead to or it can become after it has been satiated, which Simone calls the “serious” person.

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Torturing the Torturer  

Victims and those who commit the crimes against them are directly related. You cannot have one without the other and are dependant on each other to be. Sartre’s discussion on the concepts of freedom, oppression, and human nature will help explain and supplement much of this concept, but the tortured and torturer will give them a new light.

Anyone who has ever been tortured would argue that the gruesome acts done to them restrained them that would not allow them to be free. The physical state of being is definitely potentially a state of freedom that might have been subdued, but Sartre would argue that every being has the capability to recognize their freedom in all situations. “Therefore this suffering can not be in itself a motive for his acts. Quite the contrary, it is after he has formed the project of changing the situation that it will appear intolerable to him.” (B&N pg 562) This freedom is always present regardless of your physical state of being. The torturer can not invade the mind of the tortured unless the tortured chooses. Separation of the mind from the body is something that Sartre utilizes in justification that freedom is something that each person must possess in order to retain the for-itself.

Those who have been tortured would also disagree that they created the torturer. This perspective can definitely be understood as they had no direct relationship with the person. On the contrary, Sartre would argue this creation of the torturer occurs long before and escalates up to the point that the torture occurs. “Exploitation makes the exploiter dependent on the exploited… this dependence is at the heart of racism.” (Victory pg 75) Without some sort of conflict between the two to initiate the situation, neither the torturer nor the tortured could become who they do.

This leads us to the how the torturer becomes this vile creation. It is often said by the torturers that they do not know why they did what they did. Often times the torturers are declared by those who know them as acting completely out of their normal range of self when these incidents occur. But this is not to say they did not do these acts or to excuse their actions. This Sartre would explain as being part of an attempt to exert freedom. “The perpetrators… would like to convince themselves and their victims of their total dominance: at times they are super-humans who have people at their mercy, and at times they are strict and strong men who have been give in the task of taming the most obscene, the most ferocious, the most cowardly of animals: the human animal.” (Victory pg 67) The mind set of what occurs with those who are acting as torturers is that they are compelled to do such violent acts out of doing what is best for those whom the tortured are a threat to.

Torturers are often victims of older torture against themselves that these events now offer an outlet to exert their freedom; or offers a feeling that allows them a chance to regain their lost freedom and  they make a project to do so. “The sadist discovers that it was that freedom which he wished to enslave, and realizes the futility of his efforts.”(B & N pg 527)  This freedom is sought after and is the object which everyone desires to regain when they loose it. In the end the torturer feels no satisfaction in the torture because he realizes he can not enslave someone else’s freedom in order to regain his own.

This is not to say the tortured themselves are the threat but the class of people they are a member of, be it religious, racial or social standing based. Those who have been tortured often feel that the victimization has unjustly occurred. These events are not disputed as that the topic of torture is wrong but the events that lead up to the situation that occurred were just as immoral.

The two suffer torment together, be it the physical gruesome that the tortured often goes through or the mental anguish of the acts being done to someone by the hands of the torturer. The torturer has been convinced in his mind that there are secrets in this person and there sole objective has become to save others by extracting these secrets. “Useless violence: whether the victim talks or dies beneath the blows, the vast secret is elsewhere, always elsewhere, out of reach.” (Victory pg 73) The violence done by the torturer and taken by the tortured is futile, but at the time seems needed by the torturer based on the violence around them.

Opponents of the incidents of the torture that has occurred might argue that something has to be done and that those who did such things should be punished harshly. But those who find themselves in the position as torturers are often in a situation they are not prepared for. They have become members of a troop they did not enlist for and often really do not want to be a part of. “We would be fortunate if these crimes were acts of a handful of violent individuals: in truth, torture creates torturers… soldiers did not join an elite corps in order to torture the defeated enemy.” (Victory pg 70)

The events that occur between a tortured and the torturer are unpleasant for all involved, but Sartre sums it up well. “What is the use of troubling the conscience of the torturers? If one of them faltered, his superiors would replace him: there are plenty more where they came from.” (Victory 77) So despite the fact you always have you freedom, if it is used to extract a morality of those who are around you, you can not guarantee your project will be successful.
Works Cited

 

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Being and Nothingness. New York: Washington Square Press, 1956.

—. “A Victory.” Colonialism and Neocolonialism. 2001: 65-77.

 

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Russian Childcare and Vaccination

Russian Healthcare & Reform
29 March 2006

Childcare and Vaccination

The comparison of the approach of Russian healthcare in regards of their children with the United States will show that the vaccinations are a necessity and in some cases lacking on the part of the Russian society. This will be described via a detailed listing of time periods when certain vaccinations are given, be reflected by the types of vaccinations and certain problems that have arisen from administering one type of vaccination over another. The youth of a child will determine their life and how they will live once they hit maturity. An unhealthy childhood can and will leave a life long impact and in some cases the lack of life to have.

To start with the discussion of the different forms of vaccinations and how they function is necessary. There is “killed whole organisms” which is used in order to make the organism completely harmless but allows the body to learn to recognize it and protect against it. This particular type is used when they make the vaccination against typhoid. This is a very safe but not always effective vaccination. There is a chance the body might not deem the threat as such and put it into its memory to be protected against.

Then there is the “attenuated organisms” which is a cultured form of a threat and is in a weakened state when given in the inoculation. This is how they design tuberculosis vaccination, BCG, which is a bacterium which has been known to cause tuberculosis in cows. This particular vaccination we will discuss in more detail later as that it is used in Russia but not in the United States. The downfall to this particular type of vaccination is the threat is still present to get the disease from the vaccination but is not strong enough in most situations to post any threat at all to the person being injected.

“Toxoids” are a type that has been damaged by toxins to weaken them to the point that the threat can not release the proteins that would normally trigger the disease. They allow for the molecule to retain some of its properties and epitopes so that the threat will be recognized by the defense system but at the same time weakens it to a point that it is not a threat. This is how the healthcare industry deals with creating vaccinations for diphtheria and tetanus.

 

The industry also uses a form of weakening process that uses the surface of the molecule to allow it to be recognized as a threat while added multiple forms of strains of threats to be within the vaccination so that many of the same threat are all recognized but not requiring an injection of each different strain. This process is used for Hepatitis B, Influenza and even with a multitude of the common and threatening strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

The “inactivated virus” is similar to the killed bacteria in that it contains a whole particle but has been treated similar to the toxiod so that the epitopes are still present and easy for the body to recognize. This is how the Salk (IPV) vaccine is made to protect against polio.

“Attenuated virus” is used in vaccines to provide a form of the threat but still a threat to ensure the recognition by the body’s defense system. Sadly these weakened forms of the virus, though very rarely, can revive to their full strength and it only takes on to cause the disease. This has been used in treating the polio virus through a oral vaccination which allows for other members of the polio family to be immunized against as well but because of this small but still potentially life changing threat, the United State uses the Salk vaccination over the OPV. This is also how the vaccination of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is formed.

The schedule on how these medications are administered determines how soon you are covered by them. That schedule is left up to the head of our country to determine but the World Health Organization (World Health Organization) determines what must be administered and keeps track of statistics on how many are complying and how well they are complying with this guide to health.

As you can see in the chart provided, there is some variation between countries on when they should be provided. The other difference between the Russian and United States is that the Russian immunizations are the base requirements according to World Health Organization. The United States listing is what is required by the state of Iowa before you can enter the educational system.

 

Russia Scheduled immunization United States (Iowa)
BCG Birth7-14 years
DTwP (Tetracoq)(3 dosages required) 3 months4.5 months6 months 18 months 2 months4 months6 months15-18 months4-6 years DTaP
  2 months4 months6 months15-18 months4-6 years DTaPHepIPV(combination option)
  2 months4 months6 months15-18 months DTaPHib(combination option)
  Based on risk HepA
HepB Birth1 month6 months Birth-2 months1-4 months6 months HepB
HIB3 dosages 2months4 months6 months12-15 months Hib
6-23 months24 months – 49 years>=50 years Influenza
IPV 3 months4.5 months6 months18 months20 months14 years 2 months4 months6 months12-15 monthsIowa requires at age 4-6 years IPV 
Measels 12 months6 years
MM 12 months6 years
MMR 12 months6 years 12-15 months4-6 years MMR
Mumps 12 months6 years
OPV 3 months4.5 months6 months18 months20 months14 years
  2 months4 months5 months12-15 months Pneumo_conj (PCV)
Pneumo_ps Based on risk >=65 yearsBased on risk Pneumo_ps
Rubella 12 months6 years13 years
Td 14 yearsFollowed by every 10 11-18 yearsBooster every 10yrs Td
Typhoid Based on risk
12-18 monthsAnd susceptible adults     Iowa requires another dose about 11-16 years Varicella

 

To clarify what these medications do for a child I will discuss the diseases they protect from and what their chances to cause permanent harm to their life.

DTaP and DTwP are two different forms of the same type of treatment for diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. These three diseases are easily spread, the first two being spread by human contact and the third through a cut or wound on the skin’s surface. Diphtheria forms a thick covering in the back of the throat that can cause problems such as difficulty breathing, paralysis, heart failure and sometimes even death. Pertussis also causes problems with your breathing in the form of horrible coughing spells that can make it extremely difficult to eat, drink, and breathe at all. Pertussis can last for weeks and move into pneumonia, seizures, brain damage and even death. The third component, tetanus, causes excruciating painfully tightening of the muscles all over the body, but is nicknamed “lockjaw” due to the stiffening of a jaw can make it nearly impossible to drink or eat due to the inability to move the jaw or throat muscles. Death occurs in about 1 out of every 10 cases. These immunizations are not a permanent and boosters for the diphtheria and tetanus are given approximately ever 10 years. If you are exposed to threats, such as in the medical field or your work causes lots of abrasions, it is advised every 6 years.

The HepB vaccination is often advertised as the first cancer vaccination. This is because it can stop the virus that attacks the liver and in many cases leads to liver cancer later in life. Hepatitis B, which is how the vaccination got its name, has its highest chance of long term chronic damage if it can successfully infect infants and children under the age of 4. HepB is transferred via exposure to infected blood or body fluids. Most infection occurs in newborns due to infected mothers transferring the infection. The chances of a chronic infection drop drastically as children get older, so early immunization is imperative.

Hib is a vaccination that helps protect against a multitude of different threats while also minimizing potential additional threats which the Haemophilus influenzae often lead to meningitis. This vaccine also protects against pneumonia, pericarditis (an infection affecting the membrane covering the heart), and potential infections of the bones, blood and joints caused by bacteria.

IPV and OPV are two different forms of prevention for the polio virus. Unfortunately the OPV is highly dangerous in that it, as said before, can lead to getting the polio virus due to the weakened state but not dead form it can regain full strength and infect the person taking it orally. Polio is potentially fatal but is also life changing in that it can permanently paralyze if you do survive the infection. It has been found that IPV is much safer, but does not keep the virus from being transmittable in the case someone who is immunized with IPV does contract the virus but is not affected by the virus due to the immunization.

Measles, mumps, and rubella (also known as the German measles) are protected by the MMR vaccination. This is a very effective vaccination but is still necessary because these diseases are still prevalent in other countries. Measles is highly contagious and very unpleasant. The main treatment before was complete isolation and medication to minimize fevers, syrup to help with the coughing and lotions to combat the skin’s dryness and itch. Rubella is known as the German measles due to its similarity to the measles symptoms and unpleasantness to have. The rubella virus normally only lasts a few days compared to week long pains from the measles. Rubella was not as prevalent but when it did surface it would become a small epidemic. Mumps vaccination is also included with the MMR series to protect against a viral disease that attacks the salivary glands, causing fever and swelling. This particular topic will be covered again later in the paper for an example of the differences world wide and the potential harms. It’s believed that once having this vaccination the defense against these viruses is life long.

Pneumo_conj vaccination is short for pneumococcal conjugate which has been a leading cause of pneumoncoccal infections as well as a step stool for meningitis, ear infections and blood infections. These can cause permanent hearing loss, pneumonia, brain damage, and even death. Vaccinations start early to protect against this.

Varicella is a commonly known as chicken pox and was considered a “rite of passage”. This minimal annoyance at younger ages which is when it is normally contracted by residents did not warrant a vaccination until recently. Due to the large quantities of immigrants coming into the United States that had not been exposed to the chicken pox prior entry are often dieing from the exposure. At younger ages the cases are mild and rarely more than just dermal. As the age of the person exposed so does the chance of fatality due to its extreme spread. At older ages it has been known to get under the eyelids, down throats, up the sinus passages and into the lungs. With this level of exposure the inability to eat, difficulties breathing often cause death.

There has been a fairly steady decline of diphtheria in Russia, with approximately 505 cases in 2004. The measles took a huge hit in 2002 dropping it down to under 600 cases but as of 2004 there is approximately 2500 cases. Pertussis also has had a similar jump to the Measles. Rubella has been on a fairly steady decline over the last 5 years by almost 1/3 of its previous listings.

Tetanus is sadly not declining despite the fact they do immunize. The low numbers are probably the reason they have not increased the amount of vaccinations to be comparable to the five required dosages unlike their three required. The standard reported vaccination schedule according to what World Health Organization has been notified by Russian officials actually entails a fourth dosage at the age of 18 months. This information conflicts with the report on a Russian hospitals prenatal information site that states that World Health Organization only requires a total of 3 immunizations.

In the United States, the strain of diphtheria has been nearly eradicated with no reports of any cases in 2004. So far there have been no more than 50 cases of the measles in the United States since 2001, and compared to 1990’s near 28,000 cases, that is less than 1% of the previous infections. Infections with the mumps in recent years have actually been fluctuating between 200 and 400 cases per year. This year, 2006 will be a record breaker and I will discuss shortly what the potential reasons for this and explain in detail the issue at hand. Pertussis was actually slowly increasing until the year 2004. Unlike Russia the United States had an explosion but not to the extent Russia’s population did. There was 235% increase in the United States compared to the near 415% increase in Russia. Polio has also been nearly eradicated in the United States with no reports of infection since 1980. Rubella has fluctuated on a very minute scale over the last 5 years, with fewer than 25 infections per year reported. Tetanus as well has been a steady problem in the United States but its numbers are lower than Russia’s. Comparably the ratio of the United States population to the Russian would suggest that there would be need for an increase of necessity of an extra dosage implemented for Russia.

Now there are some who have suggested and even formed collations to argue that vaccinations are not worth while and that we should not do such things to our children. The following facts suggest otherwise.

  • Average annual number of smallpox cases in 1900-1904: 48,164.
    United States cases per year since 1950: 0.
    Worldwide cases per year since 1977: 0.
  • Average annual number of diphtheria cases in the U.S. in 1920-1922: 175,885.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 1.
  • Average annual number of pertussis cases in 1922-1925: 147,271.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 6,279.
  • Estimated average annual number of tetanus cases in 1922-1926: 1,314.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 34.
  • Average annual number of paralytic polio cases in 1951-1954: 16,316.
    U.S. cases of wild type poliovirus in 1998: 0.
  • Average annual number of measles cases in 1958-1962: 503,282.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 89.
  • The number of mumps cases in 1968: 152,209.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 606.
  • Average annual number of rubella cases in 1966-1968: 47,745.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 345.
  • Estimated average annual number of cases of congenital rubella syndrome in 1966-1968: 823.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 5.
  • Estimated average annual number of Hib cases before vaccine licensure: 20,000.
    U.S. cases in 1998: 54. (Barrett)

If you look at the time periods offered and then compare to the later dates and the amounts of people infected it suggests that that not only is there a need but as I said before many of these diseases we are immunizing against can be fatal or can lead to another disease that is known to cause fatalities. No parent wants their child to die. I doubt many of the people involved in these anti-immunization groups have children or have children that were not influenced by the shot in a negative way. In the discussion of the OPV I pointed out that there has been a very small percentage, but one to recognize that children were in fact infected with the polio virus because of regaining enough strength to pose a threat. As a parent, I recognize the risk and the factors that could cause my son to have gotten infected with the shots. But I also look at the statistics of how fast it can infect and even kill and the risk is worth it.

Now as said before, I was going to discuss the current issues of the mumps outbreak here locally. “300 confirmed or suspected cases of mumps have been reported in 39 Iowa counties since Jan. 1,” Courier writer Jens Krogstad says. It was posed in this article as well that there is potential that this strain that is affecting our state and now spreading out of our state boundaries actually came from the United Kingdom.

With the large amounts of foreign exchange students that come here to study and the many students that go over seas, it is quite possible someone contracted the virus and brought it back to expose the United States population. Ironically this strain is attacking primarily late teens and early twenty year olds. Similar age ranges to those of the college years, leading this assumption to be a strong possibility of being the starting point.

Many of those contracting the virus have been immunized and not actually contracted the virus itself, which means their body has a 95% chance of immunity to the measles, mumps, and rubella. Due to a close tie between the University of Northern Iowa and Malcolm Price Laboratory School the virus has since moved into this all age school. The close interactions with those from the University of Northern Iowa in most cases would not be a threat but as of the 6th of April, over half of the reported cases in the county were located at the university. It’s safe to suggest the entire population of children at this school have been exposed; due to the more recent exposure to the immunizations the younger populations are not suffering as extreme symptoms.

This, I have reason to believe, is because my son, Joseph, is currently suffering from some minor fevers and swellings on his throat that showed up early evening April 12th, 2006. Now being that they were hard to see I sent him to school the next day thinking they were gone and it was just a bug bite. Apparently they were not gone and the school had me pick him up and take him into the physician to have him checked out. They ran three different types of tests and told us it takes 3 days for the tests to be processed for mumps.

There is a requested quarantine of 5 days after the onset of symptoms being implemented. After speaking with a county health official on the 18th after a positive test result finally came back, I learned that they are actually requiring all swelling to be gone which in most cases 5 days is enough. Unfortunately, my son is home for his 7th day and the swelling increased in size due to a joyful and incapable-to-sit-still day occurred which used a lot of his energy to combat the virus. It is my understanding that the mumps incubation period is usually 16 to 18 days, although it may vary from 14 to 25 days. The health officials believe that the contraction of the virus occurred right around the time of the school’s spring break. To ensure it was not a public event he got it at they asked if he had been at any events during that time. To my knowledge there were no such events.

Mumps is contagious seven days prior to and up to nine days after the onset of symptoms. The movement of people in society makes this disease capable of spreading very easily and very fast, especially with the fact that there is such a long period of being contagious without any signs or symptoms for warning.

There is suggestion that this is a strain based out of Europe; potentially a super bug that has built up potency against the vaccinations. Now if this is the case it only proves my argument that there needs to be a universal standard that is absolutely being implemented across the world. The current standards appear to be working in almost all cases, but for the sake of the Russian population being sure to get all the vaccinations, not just one and call it good, is a necessity for the country to protect its place in the world. Without a population, there isn’t a country.

 

Krogstad, Jens Manuel. “Mumps Epidemic Continues to Spread.” Waterloo Cedar Falls Courier. 6 April 2006 <http://www.wcfcourier.com/ >

Downing, Eric. “Russian Vaccination Schedule”. 8 Jan. 2001. 17 April 2006 <http://www.russianadoption.org/Rusvac.htm>

Medem International Clinic and Hospital. Well-Baby Program. 2005. MEDEM International Clinic & Hospital.12 March 2006 <http://www.medem.ru/english/program/baby/>

World Health Organization. 2006. World Health Organization. 12 March 2006 <http://www.who.int/en/>

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine Information Statements. 25 April 2006 Center for Disease Control. 12 April 2006 <http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/>

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, American Academy of Pediatrics, and American Academy of Family Physicians. “Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule”. 1999 Iowa Department of Public Health. 17 April 2006 <http://www.idph.state.ia.us/isiis/99sched.htm>

Iowa Department of Public Health. “Public health officials identifying approaches to stop spread among Iowans”. 13 April 2006. Iowa Department of Public Health. 17 April 2006 <http://www.idph.state.ia.us/common/press_releases/2006/mumps_investigation_041306.asp>

Iowa Department of Public Health.  “Mumps Cases Continue to Increase”. 17 March 2006. Iowa Department of Public Health. 17 April 2006 <http://www.idph.state.ia.us/common/press_releases/2006/mumps_031706.asp>

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Parents’ Guide to Childhood Immunization” 2006. Every Child by Two. 17 April 2006 <http://www.ecbt.org/parents.htm#guide>

Barrett, Stephen M.D. “Misconceptions about Immunization”. 21 April 2001.Quakewatch.17 April 2006 <http://www.quackwatch.org/03HealthPromotion/immu/immu00.html>

Kids Health. “Common Children Illnesses and Infections”. 2001. Prairie Public Broadcasting. 12 April 2006 <http://www.prairiepublic.org/features/healthworks/kids/mumps.htm>

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The Origins of Hate  

A thought  misunderstand

An idea not wanting to be heard

A physical difference not wanting to seen

A belief different from those that are popular

These are the most common of things that send us

Down the stairway of displaced animosity and hate.

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Aztec Religion

El pantheon de Aztec era absolutamente grande y variado.  Había dioses relacionados con la creación del cosmos, a la fertilidad, a la regeneración, a la muerte, a la guerra, y al alimento sacrificatorio del sol.  Los dioses tenían diversos papeles y también fueron representados en diversas maneras.  Los dos dioses a quienes los dos templos más importantes del mundo de Aztec eran dedicados eran Huitzlopochtli (el deity supremo del Aztecs asociado al sol y al fuego) y Tatloc, el dios de la lluvia, que entre otras cosas fue asociado a fertilidad.

 

El pantheon de Aztec fue organizado jerárquico con los dioses que ocupaban los varios niveles verticales mencionados arriba.  La capa más alta fue ocupada por “Ometeotl” que era varón y hembra, representando por lo tanto el principio de la dualidad.  El aspecto masculino de Ometeotl, llamado nuestro señor de la subsistencia tenía con todo dos aspectos nombraron Ometicuhtli y Tonacatecuhtli.  El aspecto femenino, llamado “nuestra señora de la subsistencia” tenía también dos aspectos nombrados Omecihuatl y Tonacacihuatl.  Este par generó a cuatro niños (dios Tezcatlipoca rojo – espejo que fuma -, dios Tezcatlipoca negro, dios Quetzalcoatl – plumed la serpiente -, dios Huitzi Lopochthi – pájaro del tarareo) que crearon el universo y sus leyes.  A pesar de su importancia, no adoraban a estos dioses tanto como los dioses relacionados con los cuerpos celestes y con la fertilidad.  De importancia particular era el dios del sol sin quien no habría mundo.  Según el un mito de Aztec, un dios se sacrificó en un fuego de modo que él pudiera hacer el sol;  sin embargo una vez que él hubiera hecho el sol, él no reapareció hasta que lo alimentaron con la sangre de el resto de dioses.  El mito del nacimiento de los provids del dios del sol el baisis de la práctica de la muerte sacrifical, incluyendo muerte sacrificatoria humana.

 

Los rites y las ceremonias religiosos donde relacionado con los varios aspectos y necesidades de la vida de Aztec.  La adoración fue hecha con las ofrendas, rezos, realizando los actos simbólicos, juegos, sacrificios.  Los rituales diarios fueron asociados al alimento, y a thanksgiving.  Las ceremonias fueron realizadas en los templos que podrían ser redondos o pyramidal.  Unido a los templos había cortes para el juego de la bola (tlachtli), las piedras sacrificatorias (techcatl) y otras áreas especiales para las diversas clases de rituales y de ceremonias.  Aunque los rituales diferenciaron de lugar al lugar que siguieron una estructura básica que consistió en la preparación que ayunaba, la purificación y las ofrendas después de lo cual vinieron el sacrificio de la sangre que era un acto de la importancia importante para el Aztec.  Para ellas no podía haber nueva vida sin muerte.

 


The Aztec pantheon was quite large and varied. There were gods related to the creation of the cosmos, to fertility, regeneration, death, war, and the sacrificial nourishment of the sun. The gods had different roles and were also represented in different ways. The two gods to whom the two most important temples in the Aztec world were dedicated were Huitzlopochtli (the supreme deity of the Aztecs associated with sun and fire) and Tatloc, the rain god, that among other things was associated with fertility.

 

The Aztec pantheon was organized hierarchically with gods occupying the various vertical levels mentioned above. The highest layer was occupied by “Ometeotl” that was both male and female, representing therefore the principle of duality. The male aspect of Ometeotl, called our lord of subsistence had yet two aspects named Ometicuhtli and Tonacatecuhtli. The female aspect, called “our lady of subsistence” had also two aspects named Omecihuatl and Tonacacihuatl. This couple generated four children (God Red Tezcatlipoca -Smoking mirror-, God Black Tezcatlipoca, god Quetzalcoatl -plumed serpent-, God Huitzi Lopochthi -humming bird) that created the universe and its laws. Despite their importance, these gods were not worshiped as much as the gods related to the celestial bodies and to fertility. Of particular importance was the sun god without whom there would be no world. According to the one Aztec myth, one god sacrificed himself into a fire so that he could become the sun; however once he had become the sun, he did not reappear until he was nourished with the blood of all the other gods. The myth of the birth of the sun god provids the baisis of the practice of sacrifical death, including human sacrificial death.
The religious rites and ceremonies where related to the various aspects and needs of Aztec life. Worship was done through offerings, prayers, performing symbolic acts, games, sacrifices. Daily rituals were associated with food, and thanksgiving. The ceremonies were performed in the temples that could be round or pyramidal. Attached to the temples there were courts for the ball game (tlachtli), sacrificial stones (techcatl) and other special areas for the different kinds of rituals and ceremonies. Though the rituals differed from place to place they followed a basic structure that consisted of preparation- fasting, purification and offerings- after which came blood sacrifice that was an act of major importance for the Aztec. For them there could be no new life without death.

 

Clockwise, the days of the Aztec Calendar are as follows:

Twenty Days of the Aztec Month

  1. Snake – Coatl
  2. Lizard – Cuetzpallin
  3. House – Calli
  4. Wind – Ehecatl
  5. Crocodile – Cipactli
  6. Flower – Xochitl
  7. Rain – Quiahuitl
  8. Flint – Tecpatl
  9. Movement – Ollin
  10. Vulture – Cozcacuauhtli
  11. Eagle – Cuauhtle
  12. Jaguar – Ocelotl
  13. Cane – Acatl
  14. Herb – Malinalli
  15. Monkey – Ozomatli
  16. Hairless Dog – Itzquintli
  17. Water – Atl
  18. Rabbit – Tochtli
  19. Deer – Mazatl
  20. Skull – Miquiztli

 

Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. They worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses, each of whom ruled one or more human activities or aspects of nature. The people had many agricultural gods because their culture was based heavily on farming; also they included natural elements and ancestor-heroes. These gods included:

CENTEOTL, the corn god.

COATLICUE – She of the Serpent Skirt.

EHECATL, the god of wind.

HUEHUETEOTL, “the old, old deity,” was one of the names of the cult of fire, among the oldest in Mesoamerica. The maintenance of fires in the temples was a principal priestly duty, and the renewal of fire was identified with the renewal of time itself.

HUITZILOPOCHTLI, (the war/sun god and special guardian of Tenochtitlan) the deified ancestral warrior-hero, was the Mexica-Aztec patron par excellence. His temple (next to that of Tlaloc) on the Main Pyramid was the focus of fearsome sacrifices of prisoners captured by Aztec warriors. Victims’ heads were strung as trophies on a great rack, the Tzompantli, erected in the precinct below.

MICTLANTECUHTLE, god of the dead.

OMETECUHLTI and his wife OMECIHUATL created all life in the world.

QUETZALCOATL, (the god of civilization and learning) “quetzal (feather) serpent,” had dozens of associations. It was the name of a deity, a royal title, the name of a legendary priest-ruler, a title of high priestly office. But its most fundamental significance as a natural force is symbolized by the sculpture of a coiled plumed serpent rising from a base whose underside is carved with the symbols of the earth deity and Tlaloc. The image of the serpent rising from the earth and bearing water on its tail is explained in the Nahuatl language by a description of Quetzalcoatl in terms of the rise of a powerful thunderstorm sweeping down, with wind raising dust before bringing rain.

TEZCATLIPOCA, (god of Night and Sorcery) “Smoking Mirror” (obsidian), characterized as the most powerful, supreme deity, was associated with the notion of destiny. His cult was particularly identified with royalty, for Tezcatlipoca was the object of the lengthy and reverent prayers in rites of kingship.

TLALOC, the rain deity, belonged to another most memorable and universal cult of ancient Mexico. The name may be Aztec, but the idea of a storm god especially identified with mountaintop shrines and life-giving rain was certainly as old as Teotihuacan. The primary temple of this major deity was located atop Mt. Tlaloc, where human victims were sacrificed to fertilize water-rocks within the sacred enclosure. In Tenochtitlan another Tlaloc temple shared the platform atop the dual Main Pyramid, a symbolic mountain.

TONATIUH, the sun, was perceived as a primary source of life whose special devotees were the warriors. The warriors were charged with the mission to provide the sun with sacrificial victims. A special altar to the sun was used for sacrifices in coronation rites, a fact that signifies the importance of the deity. The east-west path of the sun determined the principal ritual axis in the design of Aztec cities.

TONANTZIN, “honored grandmother,” was among the many names of the female earth-deity.

TEZCATLIPOCA, an all-powerful god; Tonatiuh, the sun god.

XILONEN, “young maize ear,” and Chicomecoatl, “seven serpent,” were principal deities of maize representing the chief staple of Mesoamerican peoples.

XIPE TOTEC, the god of springtime and regrowth.

XIUHTECUHTLE the fire god.

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Being

Being Existential

“A being who is not what he is and is what he is not”

To think you have individual thought is not possible because as a child you learned that this is this and that is that. You were taught that you do not defecate in your pants because you are supposed to use the potty. It is NOT your idea to do so yet you do it every day. On the other hand you do not think yourself to be like someone you despise because they have qualities you don’t have. But at the same time they despise you for despising them, so therefore you have mutual dislike. There for you have similar qualities and are THUS you are alike.

So what you think you ARE, you are not; and what you are NOT is what you truly are.

 

My attempt at trying to understand the existentialist perspective on the quote in the first line.

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Lao Tzu

It is believed that Lao Tzu was born between 604 and 570 BCE [McDowell: 339] in Ch’u (present-day Henan Province) and lived from approximately 570 to 490 B.C.E. His name, Lao Tzu (), translates as “old master” which sometimes leads him to be referred to as Lao Tan or Li Er.

Lao Tzu was the head librarian of the imperial archives for House of Zhou in Luoyang. With this station he was surrounded by thousands of ideas and thoughts of all the scholarly people before him on history, philosophy and literature offering him insights and wisdom unavailable to most others.

Accounts say that with Lao Tzu’s distaste of the government’s techniques of administration and with the House of Zhou beginning to decline Lao Tzu decided to leave civilization. Legends say Lao Tzu composed the Tao Te Jing at the Great Wall as he was about to leave for some unknown destination beyond through the Han Gu Pass. The guard Yin-his, a friend of Lao Tzu’s in some references, asked him to leave a written notation of his thoughts on the Tao for preservation.

There are many legends in regards to Lao Tzu as that little is known for sure of his life. It is argued that multiple people under a single pen name could have authored the Tao Te Jing. Another legend says that Confucius was drawn to Lao Tzu to learn from his wisdom; that after Confucius’s encounter with Lao Tzu, Confucius was said to have compared Lao Tzu to his students as a flying dragon that was “un-trappable.” [The Tao]

The Tao, http://www.thetao.info/tao/laotzu.htm

McDowell & Stewart, Handbook of Today’s Religions; Here’s Life Publishers, Inc; San Bernadino, 1983.

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